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There are two basic types of salmon: Pacific and Atlantic. Pacific salmon die shortly after spawning, while Atlantic salmon may survive and spawn again.
There are seven species of Pacific salmon:
Of these seven, you're likely to find Chinook, Sockeye, and Coho being sold fresh in markets. Masu and Amago are only found in Asia.
Chinook is the largest of the Pacific salmon, averaging 15-40 pounds, but growing as large as 100 pounds or more. It accounts for only 1 percent of the catch. It is highly sought after for its vibrant orange flesh, high fat content, and buttery texture. King salmon from Alaska's Copper River is thought by many to be the "crème de la crème" of salmon.
Sockeye salmon is oilier than Chinook, making it ideal for grilling. Unlike other salmon, Sockeye does not lose its brilliant color when cooked. It is said to have a mineral-like flavor because of its plankton diet. Popular in Japanese sushi and sashimi, Sockeye average about 6 pounds.
Coho salmon has pink or red-orange flesh and averages about 10 pounds. Its taste is described as mild and sweet, and the flesh is leaner, firmer, and has a more delicate texture than other salmon.
Pacific salmon is available from mid-May through late September. Most Pacific salmon comes from Alaska, since much of the salmon of Washington, Oregon, and Northern California are protected under the Endangered Species Act.
Unlike Pacific salmon, there is only one species of Atlantic salmon. In the wild, Atlantic salmon have bright pink flesh and are fattier than Pacific salmon. Since wild Atlantic salmon are virtually extinct because of overfishing and pollution, most Atlantic salmon found in markets is farm-raised in Canada, Chile, Iceland, Ireland, Norway, and the United Kingdom. Fish are raised in hatcheries until about 6 months old, then transferred to offshore saltwater pens. They average 10 pounds in weight when harvested.
While farm-raised salmon is available year-round and at very reasonable prices, many people believe it does not compare to wild salmon in taste or in the appeal of its flesh color. Also, many organizations have expressed concerns about the sustainability of fish farming and the impacts it has on the environment and wild fish species. A search of fish farming topics on the Internet reveals a wide variety of facts, opinions, and viewpoints on this subject.
Until 1988, Steelhead were classified as the genus Salmo, along with Atlantic salmon, brown trout, and other Western trout species. Analysis of bone structures and biochemical tests revealed that Steelhead were more closely related to Pacific salmon, so they were reclassified as members of the genus Oncorhynchus, the same as Pacific salmon.
You'll find farm-raised Atlantic salmon at most grocery stores. Some wholesale warehouse stores have an abundant year-round supply at very good prices.
Ocean-caught salmon are harder to find, especially if you don't live in the Western United States. Seek out specialty retailers and farmer's markets for these fish. In Northern California, they can be purchased right off the fishing boat in San Francisco, Half Moon Bay, and Santa Cruz. You may also find sources for ocean-caught salmon on the Internet.
When buying fresh, whole salmon, look for:
When buying fillets or steaks, look for:
Buy fresh salmon only from reputable sources that keep the fish properly refrigerated or iced.
When purchasing frozen salmon, look for packages that are frozen solid. Do not buy fish that is stored above the frost line in the freezer case or fish that shows signs of ice crystals, freezer burn or discoloration. Do not buy packages that are open, torn, or crushed on the edges.
Fresh salmon should be stored in the coldest part of the refrigerator (in the meat drawer or toward the back of the lowest shelf) and cooked within a day or two of purchase. Frozen salmon that is properly wrapped in moisture-proof paper or sealed in Cryovac may be stored up to 4 months in the freezer before taste and texture begin to diminish.
Frozen salmon should be thawed overnight in the refrigerator. Place the wrapped salmon on a shallow pan to catch any drips and allow 8-10 hours to thaw. Larger fish may take longer. Never thaw seafood at room temperature or in warm water.
Salmon is nutrient-dense, high in protein, Vitamin E, and Omega-3 fatty acids, which are said to lower cholesterol and blood pressure. Nutrition experts say that while salmon is fatty, it's "good fat" and you should feel free to eat a lot of it.